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Astro Meteorology Revelations: Forecasting Weather Using Astrology
HEALTH WARNING! Be prepared to be exposed to some new concepts you may never have considered before throughout this article! What role did Yorkshire monks play in reviving the use of the ancient wind rose of the Babylonians, and how far back in time can the use of astro-meteorology be traced? What exactly is astro meteorology? I am going to tell you some amazing things you may have never heard of before. Can observing the planets really help with weather forecasts? What role might the stone circles in the UK have had in helping the system of astro meteorology evolve? Do rulers use astrology to fight wars and spin a line to the masses? Which governments plan to use weather as a weapon of mass destruction? Will governments of the future tax us more so that scientists can alter the universe to prevent climate change? All this and more is revealed in this article by UK weather forecaster and astro meteorologist Tricia, www.starsite.org.uk read on>>>
Did women have influence on the development of astro meteorology, apart from washing the pots and cooking for good ole Ptolemy and Manilius et al, if so how and when? Who exactly are astro meteorologists? Many astronomers call themselves astro meteorologists, but don't apply the principles of astrology as an astrologer would when producing UK weather forecasts. Astrology can produce outstanding results in predicting weather and has been handed down in diverse traditions for more than two millennia. Even conventional meteorologists would find it hard to respectably deny their job of weather forecasting was borne of the tradition of astrologers sky watching to see the correlation of certain celestial events and their conicidence with terrestrial weather.
Do you want to learn the fascinating art and science of weather forecasting? Read on to find out more about the route of this study of the stars and their use in weather forecasting.
After first learning Astro meteorology and the ancient system of weather forecasting using Vedic astrology in 2003 ( more about Vedic system of weather forecasting later) I was given an excellent book on the tropical system of forecasting weather which I will share with you later in this article. I will teach you what you can do to learn this branch of astrology, and then how to use it to demonstrate to the whole world that astrology still has resonance for a modern era when even conventional meteorologists with all their trillions of pounds of equipment, still struggle to give an accurate forecast for events such as the Royal Wedding 2011, when I could accurately forecast what the UK weather would be in the centre of London, a week before the event using astro meteorology.
Vedic astrology is excellent for accuracy in forecasting events, but doesn't seem to have reference to weather patterns such as snow, icy blizzards, fog and mists, frost, rhime and other UK weather we experience. I was delighted to discover the works, discussed below, of many ancient, medieval and a few practising modern astro meteorologists in the western system of astrology who had lots of techniques and information about how to use astrology to deliver truly amazing weather predictions. More of these later. See how accurate this system can be in successfully forecasting UK weather, at my blog with sample UK weather predictions with feedback on results for the season ahead:-
amazingweather.wordpress.com and for the week ahead at:-
Press on underlined links to retrieve further FREE useful information throughout this article. I will also tell you what you can do to learn basic astrometeorology the system of forecasting weather.
Brief History of Astro Meteorology.
'The Babylonians had the wind-rose of eight thumbs, and used already the names of the four cardinal points to denominate the intermediate directions; whereas it was till now generally supposed that we owe to Charles the Great, or perhaps to his learned monk Alcuin, who came from Yorkshire, this progress of the combination of the four principal winds to denote all others.'' We see another Yorkshire astrologer makes his mark on the study later.
Ancient astrologers dating from Egyptian times are known to have occupied places of supreme respect in courts of rulers, who had to assure prosperity for the nation. The art and science of atro meteorology was developed by these astronomer astrologers who were revered as priests who could forecast weather and other events by observing skies above. ''The state of meteorology in the old Babylonian culture, namely, three to one thousand years B.C., shows quite another character than it did in those primeval times in which the weather proverbs originated. After having been formed into the beginnings of a learned profession by the priests, the atmospheric phenomena were brought by them into connexion with the constellations of the heavenly bodies, and a complete system of consequences and combinations was established, which gave rise to the Astro-Meteorology. It even formed an integral part of the Assyric-Babylonian religion.'' Quotes above ref: Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. vol. xxxiv, 1908, p. 221, revised and extended in Met. Z. 1908,Bd. xxv, p. 482.
Stone Circles and Rows and Weather Forecasting.
How do our UK stone circles factor into the history of astro meteorology? The temples in Assyria were aligned towards the point of sunrise at equinox points, and many standing stones in the UK are similarly aligned with the skies implying the importance of celestial observation for ancient civilisations that perished if not equipped with some warning of perils warned of by the heavens. The Egyptians used astro meteorological observations to warn them of the incoming floods of the Nile, which aided fertility, just as the Babylonians foresaw the Euphrates would flood, allowing agriculture to flourish and bring prosperity to the nation.
I often visit the Castle Rig stone circles in Cumbria at the summer solstice, and can easily imagine how ancient people could stand there at the solstice and construe a map of the heavens the same way I do with my computer, and use it to forecast the weather for the season ahead. The stone circles on Lewis Island off the coast of NW Scotland is uniquely placed and oriented in terms of measuring what is now called the ‘’still moon’’ demonstrating that even in ancient times people were aware of the need to track a variety of lunar and other planetary movements if they were to be prepared for any impending weather disasters. An exciting refernce to this is made by Diodorus who wrote circa 1BC that in a circular temple on the Hyperborean Isle (Britain), the moon appeared close to earth and god Apollo visited the island every 19 years. Gaspani in ''Astronomy in the Celtic Culture'' talks of light and dark moon influences on tides thought to be known by ancient Druids whose ''temples'' were the stone circles we see remnants of today throughout many parts of the world.
Ancient Forecasting Methods
Weather forecasting was still evolving it's methods of effectiveness in many ways from ancient times, with much documentations still to be unearthed in many parts of the globe, some of it perhaps lost to climate change, as vast continents are reported by Plato, Pliny, Aristotle and others, who record how cultures and regions disappear with deserts forming, and silt being carried away by strong destructive winds that then deposit it upon long lost settlements and forgotten cities which remain to be uncovered by some future excavation by man or more bad weather. While some regions of the globe such as Egypt depended upon rivers for fertility of the land, other regions depended upon rains and sunshine for their own agricultural needs, so traditions of weather lore were evolved in different ways to cater to the demands of farmers, merchants and ordinary folk, depending on the climatic needs of their region. One compendium of such weather lore remains with us to this day.
An elaborate exposition of weather-lore was drawn up by Greek Theophrastus, who lived circa the third century BCE, and was a student of Aristotle who wrote Meteorologica. He gave us eighty different rain signs, forty five wind signs along with fifty signs for a storm in his ''Book of Signs.'' In Book 2 he relates how these events have been foreseen through observing the heavens. Theophrastus gives us an amazing overview of the collective understanding of weather-lore taught by eminent people of his day, and provides us with a breathtaking description of how the moon is used to forecast weather that nearly mirrors the way modern astrologers use the lunar charts to forecast weather:-
''So too is it with each month; the full moon and the eighth and the fourth days make divisions into halves, so that one should make the new moon the starting-point of one's survey. A change most often takes place on the fourth day, or, failing that, on the eighth, or, failing that, at the full moon; after that the periods are from the full moon to the eighth day from the end of the month, from that to the fourth day from the end, and from that to the new moon. ''
I will show you later in ‘‘learn astro meteorology’’ how to find out how modern astro meteorologists still use the moon to forecast weather.
Around 340 BC Aristotle wrote his Meteorologica. He was a Greek philosopher born at Stagirus in 384 BCE. Not only does his work give us some idea about climate change affecting land masses at the time, but it also tells how far weather forecasting and understanding the weather had evolved since Babylonian and Egyptian times. He divides the physical world into four key elements reminiscent of Greek Hippocrates view of nature as well as the Ayurvedic view of the physical body ''Two of the qualities, the hot and the cold, are active; two, the dry and the moist, passive.''
His evaluation of weather patterns such as winds, frosts, hoar frosts and the air generally shows a deep understanding of differing types of weather not formerly found to be discussed in previous centuries. download Meteorologica
There are myriad texts that record the widespread nature and use of ancient weather lore and its role in weather forecasting. '' The Eclogues and Georgics'' of Virgil, first century, talks about Roman weather lore, Homer's Oddyssey and the Iliad are full of references to the constellations demonstrating how much observation and recording of the stars had taken place by the Greeks as well as Romans by the first century. The first century treatise ''Calendarium rusticum'' of the Roman Columella, a respected eminent expert on rural affairs, informs of the best times and seasons to perform farming tasks, husbandry and wine making, along with a description of the twelve winds widely understood to bring specific types of weather of benefit or destruction to the Mediterranean regions and beyond.
The Bible has many verses that remind us of how old the practise of astro meteorology is and that the teachers Ezekeel and others taught how to observe heavenly signs to forecast weather. Chapter 8 in the Book of Enoch tells us:-
''1.And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of wor
king them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. 2. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîj (taught) astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Ezêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun, and Sariêl the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . .''
The Old Testament, biblical book of Daniel is no less than an ancient record of an Israelite astrologer employed by King Nebuchadnezzar to forecast weather. In the new testament we have more evidence of astro meteorological observation in St. Matthew xxiv. 32, ‘Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh’ a platitude that we see repeated in many versions of weather lore of more ancient times, including Hesiod’s (circa 700 B.C) ‘’Work and Days’’ one of my favourite references for lunar lore in my regular sun sign columns published by a variety of online media. These fragments of cultural knowledge remind us that the topic of astro-meteorology is the oldest branch of astronomy and astrology, still being applied, even though some modern meteorologists may scorn predecessors in this field of weather forecasting.
A rich cultural heritage is vividly and often beautifully portrayed in Hesiod, who gives an enriching picture of rural life pre motor car and the rush of modern life with his descriptions of the seasonal migration of birds and cranes flying south to Libya, even talking about the slowness of the snail bringing its message for the forthcoming summer months. The seas, an important form of transport, trade and economic growth for early civilisations also have their own astro meteorological messages at a time when people felt at the mercy of weather fate if they were not aware if the season would come early or late. Much of the weather lore in Hesiod was probably used later by Pliny to help him sail the seas. Hesiod’s ‘Work and Days’ provides an insight into the natural rhythm of life in an agriculturally dependent era, with no mod cons! Later Hippocrates, the ''father of modern medicine'' built on this science and made impressive use of it in his day. Hippocrates speaks of the need for physicians to take astronomy and the stars influence on the seasons and weather into account when assessing the general situation of the people about to be given medical treatment 460 BC - 377 BC.
In the last century a remarkable artefact was raised from the depths of the ocean causing ripples of excitement around the globe. It was an ancient instrument for measuring the position of planets now known as 'antikythera' used by the Greeks and thought to be in use circa 150 BC. Made of bronze and found in a wooden frame it displayed information in over 3,000 characters which subsequently turned out to be a manual for it. It talked of Aphrodite (Venus), Hermes (Mercury), and eclipses. It wouldn’t fit on our bookshelves or look good in the garden, so be thankful for the good old barometer and computer! This artefact does convey the idea of how hard ancient cultures strived to transport their latest weather forecasting technology across the globe, obviously a great trade in such things heralded the modern obsession with the new meteorological tools which I talk more of later.
Chinese Systems, Parapegmata and Astro Meteorology
It is worth having a closer, though not detailed, look at the parapegmata system of observing the heavens and correlating weather events with the stars as it seems to be a major tool utilised by ancient astrologer/astronomers to formulate their pending forecasts of weather. The Babylonians are known to have had a linear view of the constellations and parapegmata happily fit in with a linear view of the heavens. Parapegmata are a linear recording of the position of stars with some observations written next to them and a hole next to each entry for a peg to be placed in. Daryn Lehoux in his recent paper ''Observation and Prediction in Ancient Astrology’’ offers an excellent study of why he now believes parapegmata were not a tool for researching what the weather effects would be, but for actually forecasting them, and he offers erudite information on this issue. His conclusion demonstrates that astronomical observations must have been thousands of years old to get to this stage.
We already know that the Chinese, who use the North Pole for establishing the precise position of their 'Central Palace,' have changed their calculations of the star at the centre of their calculations more than twice. The Central Palace of the sky is defined by a large dome, with its centre at the Celestial North Pole and the circumference on the horizon. The Pole Star gives pride of place to the central position but the fascinating thing about the heavens is this, the occupying star at the North Pole can actually change over millennia! Just think of a massive journey the stars undertake over time, shifting their positions ever so slowly and mostly unobserved by us in one lifetime. At some stages of evolution Thuban is at the North Pole and can be viewed as the Pole star, while amazingly at other times, due to the precession of the equinoxes, Polaris can occupy this near central position. The Pole Star is very close to the Celestial North Pole but not exactly central. According to my own calculations, given the ZET programme I use, (free download on links page) which may differ from others to some slight degree, each star takes Pole Position at the following times:-
Polaris highest declination 2101 28 August: 89 32 17(Thuban in 93 taurus virginius)
Thuban highest declination 2500BC Dec 9: 89 56 08 (polaris 11aurietus/aswini/hamal)
These two stars are opposite each other and signify equinox both vernal and autumnal at other stages of their sojourn, and a deeper research may actually uncover that they are the movers and shakers of the earth's climate, and the engine behind climate change. Can you possibly imagine future governments will tax us more to pay some scientist who believes he can alter this celestial phenomenon to prevent climate change from happening? The Chinese system of astrology certainly is a very ancient one, as is the Egyptian system in a culture that boasts its celebration of the seventh millennia, while here in the west we shout about reaching our second! If only our modern astro meteorologists could read hieroglyphs I am sure we would find much to inform us in the treatises on constellations painted on the walls of pyramids, and perhaps used as teaching tools to pass on treasured knowledge of weather forecasting to the next generation of priest astro meteorologists.
By the first century oral traditions of cultures, where writing was not widely practised by all, most knowledge was handed down to a select inner circle by word of mouth and had been sparsely written down for posterity. I hesitate to add that no written tradition existed, can only be assumption because lack of evidence of mass production in earlier times, does not mean some evidence it did exist and won’t be unearthed at some stage. The Chinese were producing paper for centuries before it was used in the west, and papyrus was the medium of the written word in the east and Africa. Much of what then happened in the millennia after the first century was built upon this foundation of emergent astro meteorology. The parapegmata system of observing weather to devise an understanding of what the heavens portend for the season ahead gives a rare insight into how the ancient observers watched and recorded stars and coincidence with weather events. In 1902 fragments of parapegmata were found at Miletus. Parapegmata were tablets with holes in and next to one of the pegs in the holes of the tablet of this is recorded:-‘’Arcturus sets in the morning and there is a change in the weather according to Euctomon. ON this day Aquila rises in the evening also, according to Philippus’’ (translation by Daryn Lehoux)
Lehoux gives a list of various seers who observations are quoted in the parapegmata including Euctomon, Eudoxus, Philippus, the Egyptians and even Callaneous an Indian. Interestingly, although the Chinese at this time had outstanding astro meteorological ability, it seems not to be mentioned in parapegmata found buried at Miletus in 1902. In other parapegmata we find Hipparchus, Meton of Athens, Callippus and Democritus, along with Varro and others already discussed above, yet still no reference to Chinese constellations or observations. So when did Chinese expertise finally penetrate the minds of ancient astro meteorologists? China has many pyramids suggesting they too were aware of the need to observe the heavens from a high vantage point, and their own system is perhaps the most ancient, or at least as old as the Egyptian and Babylonian ones, yet it is hard to find material translated into English to learn more of their weather forecasting with astrology. More of Chinese influence later when we’ll find out how the ancient oracle of the I Ching could perhaps hold a clue to their own ancient method of weather forecasting.
Do ancient parapegmata exist on the Yorkshire Moors? Ptolemy tells of obsservations made across the globe by Aratus, Cicero, Locric, Daritheus, Cyclades and a host of other astronomer/astrologers around Europe. On Ilkley Moor in Yorkshire there are many prehistoric stones with potentially astronomical signs, found repeated in Italy, perhaps of astrological application called 'cup and ring' circles. Some stones exhibit images that look like the plough shaped constellation, while one large stone, pictured and named the Idol Stone by folklore, actually looks like a prehistoric parapegmata with groupings of holes in numerical values that suggest the lunar phases, the days of the week, and five brightest planets easily observed from the Moors.
Astro Meteorology, Ptolemy, First Century and Beyond
This era eventually develops into a time of boys with more toys! However we do find out how and why astrologers are not ever to be allowed to call themselves scientists, and how those who do jealously protect their position with this fashionable term manage to usurp predecessors in the field, and end up becoming the new magicians in an era of spin! A rapid development during the last 500 years of the last millennia shows a speedy rise in the invention of instruments and measuring the atmospherics of weather that pushes the study of astrology off the university campus, replacing seers with scientists and now climatologists who terrify people as much as astrologers were accused of doing!
How did we get to a stage where scientists and ologists can baffle and bewilder people in power with cries of global warming, purely by bandying around statistics and calculations that all serve to blind people with science? Shouldn’t we be more grateful to the legacy of research left by all those cultures and seers already mentioned above, who clearly convey along with Plato and other authors that climate change is inevitable and happened when aeroplanes and motor cars didn’t exist?
As today in 2011 some of those using astrology in ancient times were constantly under attack for unsound use of the system of foreseeing the future. There may be some political spin surrounding the condemnation of natal astrology by Sextus, circa second to third century AD, a little like putting a knife in the raw wounds of a defeated Persia, and the traditions of Zoroaster upheld by those in Sextus day. ‘’ The Book of Nativities’’ attributed to Zoroaster, records many nativities and in the third century many astrologers applied this scientific system, using it more widespreadly than Babylonians who only set them up for important rulers. However, those who used astrology to forecast weather avoided Sextus' in his ''Adversos Mathematis,'' as he commends their sound methodology.
Certainly you have to be rigorous in understanding the advanced rues of astrology to forecast weather accurately, which is no doubt what Sextus is pointing out in his condemnation of natal astrologers, and admiration for astro meteorologists. No pontificating about character or personality will persuade your client you are expert in the subject of weather forecasting, nor will waxing lyrical ad ennui about the deeper significance of aspects or Jupiter or Leo. You will fail miserably in forecasting weather unless you rigorously command the rules of the subject systematically and are expert at observation of the correlation of celestial configurations and terrestrial weather. Similarly slavishly following ancient treatises and weather manuals can also bring pitfalls, as each climate and region of the globe, even each region of a country can respond to planetary configurations in varying ways.
You will learn more of how to use planetary configurations when you learn the basic astro meteorology.
Egyptian born Ptolemy agrees with the view that observation is the key to success in ‘’Phaeses’’ where he records some weather forecasts. Clearly Ptolemy, as mentioned, had links with a group of seers collecting star and weather data from varying regions of the globe. He refers to our region, the UK, as he talks of what I surmise is the Hebridean Isle and the standing stones, which may be the ones on Lewis Island. He also talks of the Druids, and gives the contemporary view of the natures of the signs of the zodiac and the types of atmosphere associated with them, assigning an excitement of rain and thunder to Virgo with an exposition of how each decanate has different effects on weather. By now rather than a coincidence of stars and weather occurring, we get a more confident command of the coincidental relationship between celestial and terrestrial weather for weather forecasting purposes. Ptolemy‘s Tetrablibos is a fascinating read encapsulating all that was considered the cream of knowledge in maths for star computation and understanding of meteors amongst many other things. Almagest is essential reading for all astrologers
It isn’t until circa 355 that we women can celebrate a female influence on astro meteorological progress through time. Ptolemy’s knowledge was kept alive by Hypatia living circa mid fourth to fifth century, the first great woman of science. She was a well-known professor of philosophy, mathematics and astronomy at Alexandria. With her father Theon, she edited and wrote commentaries on Ptolemy’s work. So keep your chin held high girls, there’s hope for us to make our mark on history yet!
But what about the Arab influence on the spread of weather forecasting? Is there a link between them, the Mayans, even the Chinese and an obsession with Venus?
Jundishapur in Persia, now named Iran, housed a university that peaked during Anoshirvan’s time around the fifth- sixth century, bringing together Greek (Egyptian & Byzantine), Indian and Persian traditions along with Chinese Herbal medicine and religion. Oddly enough the highly regarded Indian work ‘’Parasara,’’ the Bible of Vedic and Hindu Astrologers, seems to condense works of a variety of regions in Asia, and even uses Greek terms: kendra, panaphera and apoklima, and could be deemed a compendium of astrological insights which may well have derived from a similar if not the same gathering of astrologers, and some weather lore of ‘’Parasara’’ has also been recorded. It makes a very interesting read as he gives a wealth of information about major disasters including one position of Venus to look out for as a herald of the next world inundation for he tells us that when Venus rises or sets on the 14th or 15th day of the dark fortnight then the earth will look as though it were a vast sheet of water completely flooded.
This understanding of planetary connections with weather within astrological circles perhaps gives us insight into perhaps why the Mayans,( see Palanque lid right) thought by the Indians to be from their continent, were so precise in their calculation of this planet. Maybe the Mayans took with them the body of knowledge collated by the ancient Persians who also kept steady records of this planet, perhaps for the same purpose of knowing when the next flood would arrive. King Ammi-saduqa (1683-47 BC) of the Persian region also commanded his astrologers to keep assiduous records of the transit of Venus behind the sun, but so far the reason why is unknown. The Mayans charts for times of war show certain transits of Venus over the sun indicating an invasion or warring policy rather than a weather interest! This view of planet Venus as a warring factor is also shared elsewhere in history. What you may not also know is that far from seeing Venus as a planet of peace, the Chinese see it as signifying war and catastrophe.
An outstanding author from around the first century, who refers to many of those budding astro meteorologists already mentioned, was Pliny, a Roman elder who, if I remember correctly, was a mariner reliant on the weather for navigating rough seas. On his retirement from sailing the oceans of the world, when he would have been dependent upon maps of the starry skies and the globe,he collated contemporary literature on natural events including in Chapter 2 of his 'An Account of the World and Natural Elements' a collection of natural and weather lore, as well as astrology/astronomy during his day. Pliny tells us about the progress in calculating the stars positions, ''Anaximander the Milesian, in the 58th Olympiad , is said to have been the first who understood its obliquity, and thus opened the road to a correct knowledge of the subject. Afterwards Cleostratus made the signs in it, first marking those of Aries and Sagittarius; Atlas had formed the sphere long before this time . But now, leaving the further consideration of this subject, we must treat of the bodies that are situated between the earth and the heavens.'' Pliny goes on to talk of how and why it was thought certain weather arrived, ''the fires which fall upon the earth, and receive the name of thunder-bolts, proceed from the three superior stars...it is commonly said, the thunder-bolts are darted by Jupiter.''
Unlike Sextus Empiricus, Pliny gives many references to what by his era are considered the influence of the stars upon the earth and individual nativities, rather than just coincidences, constituting what was formerly regarded as so important a science as judicial astrology. By the 2nd century Ptolemy has drawn up a regular code of it in his "Centum dicta," or "Centiloquiums." His Almagest conveys fascinating insight into the astrology of his day along with many references to weather forecasting with constellations, as does to some extent Manilius in his ''Astronomica,'' designed as a teaching tool for astrologers and worth downloading.
Manilius gives a wonderful insight into house systems, and the system of ‘lots’’ as well as demonstrating that Persian astrology was in vogue and employed by many in the western world, probably due to the influence of Arab scholars who often travelled India gleaning perhaps much of India's weather lore and astrological practises. The system of lots can be seen in some branches of Indian astrology also.
By 2-3 AD we can see the coming together of many cultures to share their love of the observation of the heavens. Persian astrologers were considered masters of the art of this science in their hey day and much of their system permeates traditional astrology in the west today. The most famous Arab astrologer Abumassah ( C.E. 787-886) leaves us '' Flores Astrologicae.'' Much of ‘’Flores’’ is probably of more use to those wanting to predict weather in the region of Iran or Iraq, rather than the UK, for though it is an interesting sample of how to view planets in weather forecasting, I haven't found it very useful in my astro meteorological work for the UK weather forecasting but then we have more astronomical information at our disposal today!
By now the ''scientists'' of the day were in much demand by many leaders intent on dominating the world and extending their empires. How did these rulers make use of astrology? Nabu-rimanni (Naburianus) was the chief astrologer of Darius, the famous Persian ruler, and he studied lunar eclipses calculating them more accurately than Ptolemy and Copernicus. His work was used for many centuries by observers such Seleucid and Parthian rulers of Persia. His picture of Heavens was borrowed by the Greeks and eventually reached the famous Greek scientist Democritus. It was Naburianus who granted Darius the boon of being able to darken the skies in order to subdue his enemies before a battle, by being told about the time of the next eclipse of the sun which would darken the air. Darius warned the enemy to submit as he was so powerful he could darken the sky, which he did when the eclipse of the sun was full. So even in ancient times rulers used astrology to spin a line, as today we see the FBI and other secret services and governments use astrology to fight wars and assassinate perceived enemies. Don't believe me? Odd how Bin Laden was killed on the exact day of Jupiter conjunct with Mars in Aries 2011, on the 11th May when I predicted in my UK weather forecast for spring, published in February, that terrorism would hit the headlines on that day. But then the US has many a link with astrology and many books have been written about these, including the fact that Franklin produced alamanacs, a facsimile of which I have. A former FBI agent now produces some astrological forecasts on a website, and would you believe there is even a document freely available on the net that talks of the military examining ways of using weather in war? The British military also were looking at this during WW1 and there is still an investigation about cloud research conducted with the Royal Air Force in Cornwall. In the US a manual entitled ''Weather as a Force Multiplier:Owning the Weather in 2025,'' shows a race to control the weather as it is a 'Research Paper Presented To Air Force 2025' by seven members of the military in August 1996, since when we have seen cloud seeding undertaken more frequently. Not for the first time are powers trying to control the world using the findings of scientists of all ages.
Back to Darius and his new tool of domination-eclipses. Apart from the secret knowledge of eclipses being a handy way to subdue your enemy, the knowledge of when they would occur would also enable people hundreds of miles apart to calibrate their weather vanes and sun clocks.So this was an effective new way of arranging times for important meetings and timing of events between leaders in different parts of the globe. But more knowledge was still to come.
Abraham Ibn Ezra (1089-1164 CE) was a medieval Jewish scholar who wrote (among many other things) a number of well-regarded astrological treatises. He extends Ptolemy's information on decans and their use in astro meteorology in an exposition of how they were being developed nearly 1000 years post Ptolemy. Ezra talks of decans as a source of magical ''insight'' perhaps echoing the esotericism of the Hermetic tradition of this type of astrology.
Another Babylonian astronomer under Persian rule, Kidinnu (Cidenas) of Sippar, distinguished the solar year from the lunar, discovered the precession of the equinoxes and arrived at an exact calculation of the length of the year, making an error of only 7 minutes, 41 seconds. Some of the oldest records of astrology are astrological omens preserved from the reign of king Ammi-saduqa (1683-47 BC) and the transit of Venus behind the sun was considered important to note in those days in ancient Persian/Babylonian regions, seemingly giving important omens. This mirrors the fascination of counting the cycles of Venus as used by the Mayans, though in neither instance does it seem records have emerged that show this was used in weather forecasting, unlike the Indian texts. Of course the ziggurats built in Babylon reflect the height of those built by the Mayans, giving both cultures a clear view of the sky without fear of having the view obstructed by trees or other obstacles. Persian basic knowledge of astronomy/ astrology was probably absorbed by the Greeks after the defeat of the Persian Empire around 5-4th century BC, and the Greeks excelled at developing the maths to extend knowledge of the heavens and some Persian knowledge was also shared by Egyptian astronomers. Hebrew astronomy survived due to the Parthians re conquering the Persian Empire around 126 BC and the symbolism of darkness and light in Zoroastrian lore, lives on in Hebrew astronomy/ astrology.
Abu Ma’shar Balkhi (787-886 AD) exerted a powerful influence on the development of Western Astrology and his book about his extensive travels of India make interesting reading. Al Biruni circa 990 was another well known figure in western astrology 990 AD, and at age 17 he computed the latitude of his city Kath by observing the maximum altitude of the sun and shortly afterwards produced his Cartography, a work on map projections. In Gilan near Caspian area he observed a major eclipse in 997 and by comparing his results with another astronomer in Baghdad was able to calculate the difference in longitude between the cities, an essential task for those wanting to erect charts for the purpose of weather forecasting. Biruni also produced books about the astrolabe a brilliant tool used by ancient astrologers to set up charts for forecasting. The equivalent invention today in mod cons for the astro meteorologist would be the computer. Not only that he translated much of the ancient Vedic texts on astrology, originally written in sanskrit, into Arabic, no mean feat, although much of his translation and interpretation is corrected by R Bhat in his work on the Brihat Samhita. Al Biruni talks of the Kurma Chakra method of weather forecasting used by Indian astro meteorologists. Known as the tortoiseshell, the kurma chakra is a tightly coiled snaking of nadis or nakshatras still used by Indian weather forecasters to produce outstandingly accurate weather predictions about the monsoons and other weather. I record these nadis on my forecasts and hopefully at some stage will be able to cor relate them with our British weather patterns that are currently not listed in the tortoise method.
Al Biruni wrote the book of ‘’Shadows’’ around 1021 AD. Of course Biruni wont mind me using AD as he himself, like any great astrologer, put religious and cultural divisions on one side and had no time for the burning of books during cultural disputes.
At this stage we have summarised more one thousand years of the evolution of astro-meteorology but what about its furtherance after the first few thousand years? How have scientists gone on to steal the show and where does the I Ching fit into all this? More of this later.
Astro Meteorology and Diversification in Meteorological Services
By the 13th century we meet up with another Yorkshire scholar in astrology John Sacrobosco, born about 1195 in Halifax, West Yorkshire. ‘’ THE SPHERE OF SACROBOSCO '' covers the globe, its regions the pole and shape of the world, along with information about rising and setting of stars at different latitudes and how this affects diverse localities and climes. The author finishes with describing the circles and motions of the planets. The most fascinating part of his work is the sources he uses to draw information from, as they are little known and I don't recall their work in any other book on the subject. He refers to Alfraganus who talks of the summer and winter and different experiences of weather in varying parts of the globe, and refers also to an author he names Lucan who calls the equinoctial "the circle of the high solstice.” What is interesting about Sacrobosco is how he takes great pains to describe how the globe can be divided up into areas which then help detect the seven climes he defines so clearly for us. This method of partitioning the globe is used widely in the grids used by conventional meteorologists but in a more sophisticated way today to forecast weather flow.
After all this work in establishing the foundations of measurement of the stars, and the celestial dynamics, why can't conventional meteorologists deliver accurate long term forecasts? Why are they so out of touch with what the public need to know about weather and why do they get such a bad press for many inaccurate weather forecasts? Why are astro meteorologists not being used to predict weather in conventional modern forecast services?
By the time of Kepler circa 16th-17th Century the spread of knowledge was made easier by the rise of that weapon of mass production, the printing press. The 17th Century saw astrology being taken over by a new fascination with mathematics and physics in ways that no longer associated themselves with the old science of astro meteorology. The Scientific revolution meant that everything had to proven in ways that could be tested by the new equipment such as barometers. Newton’s theory of the laws of gravity, was one of the new heroes of the day, and though he confessed to learning astrology in his youth, and suspected of continuing with it later, his impact on the field of science took it in a new direction that enabled a cult of the scientist to evolve, taking over the previously respectable role of the ancient astrologer. Astrology was kicked off the university campus which is sad for people like myself who were destined to become astrologers. Mathematics and physics took its place. The word scientist however was not used until 100 year after Newton's death, and astrologers were never to be allowed to use it, not if scientists had anything to do with it! In fact astrology is a science in the hands of anyone with a scientific mind. There are fields of information in astrolgical charts which can be re established to research consistency in observation at specific events and can be replicared accurately by scientifically minded astrologers.
Probably due more to the hostility in the UK to astrologers after the Vagrancy Act of the 19th century, as well as the imprisonment of one astrologer who predicted a naval sea event during the war, few treatises surviving on mainland Europe enjoyed the brightness of day in England. I'm still amazed at the varying tomes, articles, and books that I encounter from mainland Europe about astrology and astro meteorology, which were hardly openly available in England in the days when I first started studying astrology during the 1960's.
Kepler is one of the most famous names in the field interested in atmospherics and although he refers to the work of Roman and Greek authors already discussed, he is more interested in cause and effect of atmospheric/weather phenomenon. His interest in the declination of the planets, an area of calculation essential to astro meteorologists, though not often used by many natal astrologers. He tells of the greater influence of all planets when in northern declination on the northern hemisphere. He also tells us Winter Full Moons are more humid than summer ones, and that in winters when Saturn and Mars are in lower declination they will have less power for the northern hemisphere, a fact most of us in the astro meteorological circles now take for granted.
By the end of the 17th Century in England there was greater suppression of astrology as it had by now been driven underground by cultural and other revolutions.
The subject of astro meteorology being a rigorous application of the use of planet in weather forecasting, is known to have been employed by Flamsteed (1646-1719 C.E.) Flamsteed set up a chart for establishing the Royal Observatory and seems to have attended many similar ‘’ foundings’’ of buildings linked with astrological election charts. Richard Mead (1673-1754 C.E.), vice president of the Royal Society 1717, also showed an interest in astrology as he wrote about how epileptic fits coincided with phases of the moon. It was only once Fitzroy committed suicide in 1865 after making a poor weather forecast that the conventional mets were told to stop delivering long range forecasts and focus instead on evolving things like isobars, low pressure and high pressure and the immediate weather ahead.
Nowadays weather forecasting is so technical and over laden with ''science'' and toys for measuring atmospherics a modern weather report is more likely to look like a
list of statistics like this one posted on a weather forum 17th May 2011:09:46 Weather at Lydden, Nr Dover.Watson W-8681 at 460ft ASL
Current data for Swanton
Trend (per hour) +1.2
Average today 11.0
Wind chill 13.2
Heat Index 13.4
Dew Point 9.8
Rel Humidity 79%
Current Gust 6.9 NW
Average Speed 4.3
Trend (per hour) +0.4
Cumulus Forecast: Settled fine.
Observation: 90% light overcast, clearing.
Clearly scientists have stolen the show from astro meteorologists by defining a body of measurable conditions that creates a new demand for instruments for amateurs that bring in huge profits they accuse astrologers of making! Ironic, to say the least! These new instruments used in weather forecasting, including the best toy –a satellite viewing the whole globe, give us all the technical jargon we ordinary folk don't need or understand. Many of us listen dumfounded as we are blinded by the ''science'' of meteorological forecasting that tells us tomorrow a wave of high pressure pictured in the isobars moving across NW Scotland will land in the south of England.......most of us women want to know whether to take an umberella or wear trousers if the wind is set to lift our skirts or blow our hat off.
Learn basic astro meteorology later to find out a bettter way of UK weather forecasting that doesn't blind people with scientific jargon!
Astro Meteorology and Cultural use Including the I Ching
Astrology is still used, and rigorous research conducted in some scientific circles in some regions of the globe. Weather forecasting with Vedic astrology is an ancient system of astro meteorology still successfully used in India where monsoons are an essential weather pattern that influences the economy in agriculture. Studies on its application are still being done in relation to agriculture in many universities. The following links to one recent study on astro meteorology and effects on agriculture:- http://www.aau.in/english/news/Science_CongressTN_VC_Lecture.pdf
These links takes you to a study on nadis and rainfall:-
Vedic astro meteorology follows a 'snaked' nadi pattern based upon nakshatra, or constellations with much experience of their effects upon weather being recorded in ancient classical books such as Brihat Samhita and Kalaprasika, with an interesting study in a book entitled ''Weather Forecasting'' by K. K. Pathak, that analyses many years of planetary transits and their effects on monsoons and other types of weather in India.
I am still not well versed in how much China uses astro meteorology, but I do know that due to a Jesuit influence at their observatory in Peking during the 17th century they found repeatedly that their eclipse forecasts kept going wrong. Jesuit monks worked at the observatory at this time. The observatory employed Tycho Brahe’s formulas in those days but still kept getting the wrong results. Jesuits of course would still not openly accept the model of the universe with sun at centre! Once the Jesuit doctrine was identified as the cause for error, and Newton’s lunar mathematics properly employed, more accuracy was obtained. More interesting is a research that demonstrates a potential link between the phases of the moon and weather forecasts of the I Ching. The moon has eight distinct phases as in Full/New quarter and gibbous phases, and undoubtedly the I Ching recognises this pattern in its formulation of the trigrams.
Here is a table showing the potential Seasonal atmospherics associated with each trigram due to them being the ones in the commentaries that begin in Spring. See the
trigram shown before each trigram name displayed before the commentary:-
TABLE 3, Trigram cycle of King Wen
1. ::/ Chen, Arousing (Zhen, Quake)
2. //: Sun, Gentle (Sun, Compliance)
3. /:/ Li, Clinging (Li, Cohesion)
4. ::: K’un, Receptive (Kun, Earth)
5. :// Tui, Joyous (Dui, Joy)
6. /// Ch’ien, Creative, (Qian, Pure Yang)
7. :/: K’an, Abysmal (Kan, Sink Hole)
8. /::Ken, Keeping Still (Gen, Restraint)
Hard for an astro meteorologist not to interpret 2 the weak Spring sun is compliant at equinox, 5 sun in joyous as the moon reaches this phase, or 1 a quake or severe weather is forthcoming, would 3 clinging translate better as winds expected by that phase of the moon? The I Ching Hexagram interpretations are full of weather references.
Ancient Chinese literature is referred to in the I Ching Version by Wilhelm such as ''Sequence of Earlier Heaven'' (Wilhelm/Baynes,) This is traditionally attributed to the legendary Fu Xi, before the compilation of the I Ching during the term of King Wen (1177-1122 BC) of the Zhou dynasty. (Lynn, 1994, p. 4) There is also the ''Sequence of Later Heaven'' This is traditionally attributed to King Wen. (Wilhelm/Baynes, p. 269) It is not beyond the realm of reason and could be possible that these earlier treatises contained astro meteorological lore of the day. Table taken from: ‘’ The Hexagrams of the Moon’’ by Ralph H. Abraham, Visual Math Institute Santa Cruz, CA 96061-7920 USA Dedicated to Dane Rudhyar, 1895-1985
Learn Basic Astro Meteorology
As a professional teacher, lecturer, trainer and writer of over 40 years experience, and successful UK weather forecaster using astro meteorology, it is only natural that I would want to share with you the system of forecasting weather. Hopefully my account of some of the literature I have read on the way to becoming a successful UK astro meteorologist, has helped encourage you to take up this branch of astrology.
If you would like to learn basic astro meteorology you need to download this FREE book by C. C. Zain on ‘Weather Forecasting’ if you are sure you have the time, diligence and application to take the subject seriously. The book will take you through the basic steps of weather forecasting through setting up solar ingress charts for the season, lunar charts for each phase to look at rain, and Mercury charts for the wind. Using some of the basic guidelines in this book you can begin your study of weather forecasting, but do remember British weather patterns demand you also study our climate and planetary coincidences with weather in this part of the world, and your own unique locality. Who knows after years of study you too can be making accurate UK or world weather forests with the help of ‘’astrology that doesn’t cost the earth.’’
Don't forget to visit my ''LINKS'' page where I have posted links to some of the world's leading astromets.. These EXPERT astro meteorologists produce regular accurate forecasts, the measure of a true astro meteorologist.
Text copyright belongs to Tricia George astro meteorologist UK weather forecaster, astrologer, lecturer, teacher, trainer and published writer. Please acknowledge all references to maintain professional standards. www.starsite.org.uk home of astrology doesn't cost the earth.
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